Total control of fat cells from adipogenesis to apoptosis using a xanthene analog
by Ching-Hsuan Tung, Myung Shin Han, Jianjun QiOvercrowded adipocytes secrete excess adipokines and cytokines under stress, which results in a deregulated metabolism. This negative response to stress increases the possibility of obesity and several of its associated diseases, such as cancer and atherosclerosis. Therefore, a reduction in the number of adipocytes may be a rational strategy to relieve the undesired expansion of adipose tissue. A newly synthesized xanthene analog, MI-401, was found to have two distinct effects on the regulation of the adipocyte’s life cycle. MI-401 efficiently down regulated the expression of transcription factors, PPARγ and C/EBPα, and lipogenesis proteins, FAS and FABP4. This down regulation resulted in the inhibition of adipogenesis. Without newly differentiated adipocytes, the total number of adipocytes will not increase. In addition to this inhibitory effect, MI-401 was able to actively kill mature adipocytes. It specifically triggered apoptosis in adipocytes at low micro molar concentration and spared preadipocytes and fibroblasts. These dual functionalities make MI-401 an effective agent in the regulation of the birth and death of adipocytes.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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