5 years ago

CD40-mediated signalling influences trafficking, T-cell receptor expression, and T-cell pathogenesis, in the NOD model of type 1 diabetes

CD40-mediated signalling influences trafficking, T-cell receptor expression, and T-cell pathogenesis, in the NOD model of type 1 diabetes
Dan M. Waid, David H. Wagner, Martin G. Yussman, Gisela M. Vaitaitis
CD40 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). The mechanism of action, however, is undetermined, probably because CD40 expression has been grossly underestimated. CD40 is expressed on numerous cell types that now include T cells and pancreatic β cells. CD40+ CD4+ cells [T helper type 40 (TH40)] prove highly pathogenic in NOD mice and in translational human T1D studies. We generated BDC2.5.CD40−/− and re-derived NOD.CD154−/− mice to better understand the CD40 mechanism of action. Fully functional CD40 expression is required not only for T1D development but also for insulitis. In NOD mice, TH40 cell expansion in pancreatic lymph nodes occurs before insulitis and demonstrates an activated phenotype compared with conventional CD4+ cells, apparently regardless of antigen specificity. TH40 T-cell receptor (TCR) usage demonstrates increases in several Vα and Vβ species, particularly Vα3.2+ that arise early and are sustained throughout disease development. TH40 cells isolated from diabetic pancreas demonstrate a relatively broad TCR repertoire rather than restricted clonal expansions. The expansion of the Vα/Vβ species associated with diabetes depends upon CD40 signalling; NOD.CD154−/− mice do not expand the same TCR species. Finally, CD40-mediated signals significantly increase pro-inflammatory Th1- and Th17-associated cytokines whereas CD28 co-stimulus alternatively promotes regulatory cytokines. CD40 signals are required for type 1 diabetes development and for trafficking of lymphocytes to pancreatic islets. CD40-expressing T cells, Th40 cells, progressively increase in lymph nodes, spleen and the pancreas of NOD mice as they develop type 1 diabetes. CD40 signals influence the T-cell receptor repertoire, generating the repertoire required for diabetes development.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/imm.12761

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