3 years ago

Membrane-bound Dickkopf-1 in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppresses T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis

Membrane-bound Dickkopf-1 in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells suppresses T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis
Alfred L. M. Bothwell, Saliha Yilmaz, Wook-Jin Chae, Liming Hao, Octavian Henegariu, Jong-Hyun Park
Induction of tolerance is a key mechanism to maintain or to restore immunological homeostasis. Here we show that Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells use Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) to regulate T-cell-mediated tolerance in the T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis model. Treg cells from DKK-1 hypomorphic doubleridge mice failed to control CD4+ T-cell proliferation, resulting in CD4 T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. Thymus-derived Treg cells showed a robust expression of DKK-1 but not in naive or effector CD4 T cells. DKK-1 expression in Foxp3+ Treg cells was further increased upon T-cell receptor stimulation in vitro and in vivo. Interestingly, Foxp3+ Treg cells expressed DKK-1 in the cell membrane and the functional inhibition of DKK-1 using DKK-1 monoclonal antibody abrogated the suppressor function of Foxp3+ Treg cells. DKK-1 expression was dependent on de novo protein synthesis and regulated by the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway but not by the canonical Wnt pathway. Taken together, our results highlight membrane-bound DKK-1 as a novel Treg-derived mediator to maintain immunological tolerance in T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis. Regulatory T (Treg) cells are important to maintain immunological homeostasis. Here we report that the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) is expressed as a membrane-bound form in Treg cells. The expression of membrane-bound DKK-1 is important to prevent T-cell-mediated autoimmune colitis.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/imm.12766

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