Nigel K Stepto, Negar Naderpoor, Soulmaz Shorakae, Barbora Courten, Alba Moreno-Asso, Helena J Teede, Cheryce L Harrison, Danielle Hiam, Sally K Abell, Aya Mousa
Maternal vitamin D deficiency has been implicated in adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, the association between vitamin D and inflammation, particularly adipokines, remains unexplored in pregnancy.
Methods and results
In 102 overweight or obese pregnant women at high-risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), we investigated relationships between maternal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations at 12–15 wk gestation (baseline) and serum lipids, inflammatory markers, novel adipokines (omentin-1, visfatin, high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin), and subsequent pregnancy outcomes (GDM, preeclampsia, preterm birth [PTB]). After adjustment for maternal factors (age, BMI, parity, ethnicity, and smoking status), baseline 25(OH)D concentrations were inversely associated with total cholesterol and triglycerides, and positively associated with HMW-adiponectin. Higher baseline 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with decreased fasting and 1-h post-OGTT glucose and reduced risk of GDM at 26–28 wk, as well as with longer gestation and reduced risk of PTB upon additional adjustment for caesarean section. Adding HMW-adiponectin to the multivariable models attenuated most associations, and HMW-adiponectin was a significant predictor in the models.
Our findings suggest that lower maternal 25(OH)D concentrations in overweight/obese pregnant women at high-risk of GDM are associated with increased cardiometabolic risks during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes, and that these associations may be mediated by HMW-adiponectin.
This study investigated associations between vitamin D concentrations in 102 women at 12–15 wk gestation and cardiometabolic risk factors including novel adipokines (omentin-1, visfatin, high molecular weight [HMW] adiponectin) as well as subsequent pregnancy outcomes. Lower maternal vitamin D levels were associated with poorer lipid profiles, suboptimal inflammatory, and adipokine profiles, and poorer glucose metabolism later in pregnancy, as well as adverse pregnancy outcomes including gestational diabetes and preterm birth. These associations appeared to be mediated by HMW-adiponectin.