3 years ago

Effect of cocoa's theobromine on intestinal microbiota of rats

Effect of cocoa's theobromine on intestinal microbiota of rats
Margarida Castell, Àngels Franch, Mar Rigo-Adrover, Malen Massot-Cladera, Mariona Camps-Bossacoma, Sandra Martín-Peláez, Francisco J Pérez-Cano
Scope To establish the role of cocoa theobromine on gut microbiota composition and fermentation products after cocoa consumption in rats. Methods and results Lewis rats were fed either a standard diet (RF diet), a diet containing 10% cocoa (CC diet) or a diet including 0.25% theobromine (TB diet) for 15 days. Gut microbiota (fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled to flow cytometry and metagenomics analysis), SCFA and IgA-coated bacteria were analyzed in fecal samples. CC and TB diets induced lower counts of E. coli whereas TB diet led to lower counts of Bifidobacterium spp., Streptococcus spp. and Clostridium histolyticum-C. perfingens group compared to RF diet. Metagenomics analysis also revealed a different microbiota pattern among the studied groups. The SCFA content was higher after both CC and TB diets, which was mainly due to enhanced butyric acid production. Furthermore, both diets decreased the proportion of IgA-coated bacteria. Conclusion Cocoa's theobromine plays a relevant role in some effects related to cocoa intake, such as the lower proportion of IgA-coated bacteria. Moreover, theobromine modifies gut microbiota although other cocoa compounds could also act on intestinal bacteria, attenuating or enhancing the theobromine effects. Cocoa influences gut microbiota and the immune system. The impact of cocoa's theobromine is investigated. The analysis of gut microbiota (FISH and metagenomics), SCFA and IgA-coated bacteria reveals that theobromine plays a relevant role in some effects related to cocoa intake, such as the lower proportion of IgA-coated bacteria and modifies gut microbiota although polyphenols and/or fibre could modulate these effects.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201700238

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