4 years ago

miRNAs in nutrition, obesity, and cancer: The biology of miRNAs in metabolic disorders and its relationship with cancer development

miRNAs in nutrition, obesity, and cancer: The biology of miRNAs in metabolic disorders and its relationship with cancer development
Diana Patricia Portales-Pérez, Alejandro Méndez-Mancilla, Verónica del Carmen Martínez-Jiménez
Scope The scope of this review is to explain how metabolic disorders originated by a deficient nutrition can develop into a neoplastic process by the alteration of epigenetic mechanisms like miRNAs. Obesity is a proinflammatory state with a wide impact on health around the world that is associated with neoplastic diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms have a central role in the obesogenic environment, which participates on the development of comorbidities such as cancer. Methods and results We made an exhaustive review of the most recent reports about metabolic disorders with nutrition and their relationship with miRNAs, and their risk of developing into oncogenic processes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as one of the major epigenetic mechanisms that can affect the metabolic reprogramming of cellular metabolism that plays an important role in the oncogenic process. There is evidence that some foods may contribute to diminishing the risk of cancer as well as epidemiological studies that support the notion that diets high in animal protein and fat promote cancer risk. Therefore, diets high in fruit and vegetables reduce the risk of cancer. One of the principal explanations is that these foods contain bioactive compounds that increase the efficacy of epigenetic mechanisms, which in turn decrease the risk of obesity and its comorbidities. Conclusion In this review, we show how miRNAs are implicated in several signaling pathways as well as illustrating some bioactive compounds that impact inflammation and cancer development. Epigenetics plays a main role in the metabolism and nutrition modulation as well as in the regulating pathways involved in the obesity establishment. Now, it is well established that obesity and cancer have a close association through microRNAs since these regulators could respond to metabolic and nutrition stimuli and induce relevant changes in the tumoral microenvironment. This review takes in perspective several mechanisms and cellular pathways to elucidate the possible interplay between nutritional, obesogenic and oncogenic environments for a better understanding of the development of these pathologies and the molecular targets as new treatments.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.201600994

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