4 years ago

The impact of serum potassium-influencing antihypertensive drugs on the risk of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: A case–control study

Anthonius Boer, Mark C. H. Groot, Fawaz F. Alharbi, Hanno L. Tan, Olaf H. Klungel, Marieke T. Blom, Patrick C. Souverein
Aims Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is a complex multifactorial event and most commonly caused by ventricular tachycardia/ fibrillation (VT/ VF). Some antihypertensive drugs could induce hypokalaemia or hyperkalaemia, which may increase susceptibility to VT/VF and SCA. Objective To assess the association between different classes of antihypertensive drugs classified according to their potential impact on serum potassium levels and the occurrence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) based on VT/VF. Methods A case–control study was performed among current users of antihypertensive drugs. Cases were OHCA victims with electrocardiogram documented VT/VF drawn from the AmsteRdam REsuscitation STudies (ARREST) registry, and controls were non-OHCA individuals from the PHARMO database. Antihypertensive drugs were classified into: (i) antihypertensives with neutral effect on serum potassium levels; (ii) hypokalaemia-inducing antihypertensives; (iii) hyperkalaemia-inducing antihypertensives; (iv) combination of antihypertensives with hypo- and hyperkalaemic effects. Results We included 1345 cases and 4145 controls. The risk of OHCA was significantly increased among users of hypokalaemia-inducing antihypertensives [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–1.76] and among users of a combination of antihypertensives with hypo- and hyperkalaemic effects (adjusted OR 1.42; 95%CI 1.17–1.72) vs. users of antihypertensives with neutral effect. There was no difference in OHCA risk between users of hyperkalaemia-inducing antihypertensives vs. users of antihypertensive drugs with neutral effect (adjusted OR 1.15; 95%CI 0.95–1.40). Conclusion The risk of OHCA is significantly increased in patients who were current users of hypokalaemia-inducing antihypertensives and patients using a combination of antihypertensives with hypo- and hyperkalaemic effects.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/bcp.13356

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