5 years ago

Body weight, gender and pregnancy affect enantiomer-specific ketorolac pharmacokinetics

Aida Kulo, Jan Hoon, Kristel Calsteren, Anne Smits, Heidi Kemppainen, Catherijne A. J. Knibbe, Klaus T. Olkkola, Pyry A. Välitalo, Karel Allegaert
Aims Although ketorolac analgesia is linked only to the S-enantiomer, there is limited information on the stereo-selective pharmacokinetics of this agent. We studied the stereo-selective pharmacokinetics of ketorolac in a pooled dataset of two studies, with women at delivery and 4–5 months postpartum, and males and nonpregnant females. Methods Nonlinear mixed-effect modelling was used to evaluate the stereo-selective pharmacokinetics of ketorolac tromethamine after a single intravenous injection immediately after delivery (n = 41), 4–5 months postpartum (n = 8, paired), and in male (n = 12) and nonpregnant female (n = 14) subjects. All of the males and six of the nonpregnant females were recruited from another study, in which they were undergoing blood sampling for 24 h. All remaining cases underwent blood sampling for 8 h. Results For both the R- and S-enantiomers, body weight affected ketorolac clearance. In addition, clearance for both enantiomers was 36% [95% confidence interval (CI) 15%, 58%] higher in male than in female subjects of the same body weight, and 55% (95% CI 33%, 78%) higher in women at delivery than in nonpregnant women of the same body weight. Women at delivery also had a 27% (95% CI 8%, 46%) higher distribution volume than nonpregnant women. The proportional effects of the covariates were not significantly different for the two ketorolac enantiomers. Conclusions Besides the anticipated impact of body weight on clearance, R- and S-ketorolac clearance is increased in male subjects and in women at delivery. To reach an exposure equivalent to that in nonpregnant women, males should receive a 36% increased ketorolac dose and pregnant women a 55% increased dose, in addition to a dose adjustment by body weight.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/bcp.13311

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.