3 years ago

High-mobility group box-1 as an autocrine trophic factor in white matter stroke [Neuroscience]

High-mobility group box-1 as an autocrine trophic factor in white matter stroke [Neuroscience]
Yuexian Cui, Samma Tasneem Chowdhury, Byung Gon Kim, Jun Young Choi

Maintenance of white matter integrity in health and disease is critical for a variety of neural functions. Ischemic stroke in the white matter frequently results in degeneration of oligodendrocytes (OLs) and myelin. Previously, we found that toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) expressed in OLs provides cell-autonomous protective effects on ischemic OL death and demyelination in white matter stroke. Here, we identified high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) as an endogenous TLR2 ligand that promotes survival of OLs under ischemic stress. HMGB1 rapidly accumulated in the culture medium of OLs exposed to oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD). This conditioned medium exhibited a protective activity against ischemic OL death that was completely abolished by immunodepletion of HMGB1. Knockdown of HMGB1 or application of glycyrrhizin, a specific HMGB1 inhibitor, aggravated OGD-induced OL death, and recombinant HMGB1 application reduced the extent of OL death in a TLR2-dependent manner. We confirmed that cytosolic translocation of HMGB1 and activation of TLR2-mediated signaling pathways occurred in a focal white matter stroke model induced by endothelin-1 injection. Animals with glycyrrhizin coinjection showed an expansion of the demyelinating lesion in a TLR2-dependent manner, accompanied by aggravation of sensorimotor behavioral deficits. These results indicate that HMGB1/TLR2 activates an autocrine trophic signaling pathways in OLs and myelin to maintain structural and functional integrity of the white matter under ischemic conditions.

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.