5 years ago

The immunoproteasome: An old player with a novel and emerging role in alloimmunity

M. A. J. Seelen, J. R. Azzi, G. Lin, S. K. Eskandari
Modern treatment strategies for the maintenance of allograft acceptance frequently target ubiquitously-expressed pathways, leading to significant side-effects and poor long-term allograft outcomes. Constitutive proteasome inhibitors, which have recently been introduced for the treatment of antibody-mediated rejection, target the ubiquitously-expressed proteasome. To limit off-target effects and serious mechanism-based toxicity, however, these inhibitors are administered intermittently and suboptimally. Immunoproteasomes, which are an inducible subset of proteasomes enriched in immune cells, replace constitutive proteasomes after cell exposure to proinflammatory cytokines such as interferon-γ. While immunoproteasomes were first described as processors of antigen for presentation by major histocompatibility complex molecules, recent findings point to its broader biological roles. These vary from activating different subsets of the immune system, by controlling transcriptional activators and downstream cytokines, to affecting their differentiation and survival. These emerging roles of the immunoproteasome in activated immune cells have made it a rational candidate for the targeted treatment of immune-mediated diseases. Preclinical studies have established its role in maintaining allograft acceptance without significant short- or long-term toxicity. This review provides a brief background of the immunoproteasome and outlines its role in immunological pathways and its potential in alloimmunity.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/ajt.14435

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