5 years ago

Extracellular matrix derived from periodontal ligament cells maintains their stemness and enhances redifferentiation via the Wnt pathway

Rong Shu, Zhong-Chen Song, Yi-Ru Xia, Ji-Chun Zhang
Large numbers of viable cells cannot be obtained from periodontal ligament tissues of patients with periodontitis. Therefore, it is imperative to establish an ex vivo environment that can support cell proliferation and delay senescence. Here, we have successfully reconstructed a native extracellular matrix (ECM), derived from early-passage human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) using the NH4OH/Triton X-100 protocol. The ECM was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and immunostaining for specific ECM proteins (collagen I and fibronectin). Late-passage ECM-expanded PDLCs exhibited a much higher proliferation index and lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), confirmed by the increased expression of pluripotent markers. and enhanced osteogenic capacity. Interestingly, the Wnt pathway was suppressed during the ECM expansion-mediated increase in pluripotency, but was activated in an osteogenic differentiation environment, as confirmed by treatment with the XAV-939 β-catenin inhibitor or the SP600125 c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor. Cell sheets formed by ECM-expanded PDLCs exhibited an enhanced periodontal tissue regeneration capacity compared to those formed on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) surfaces in vivo. Taken together, the cell-free ECM provides a tissue-specific cell niche for the ex vivo expansion of PDLCs while retaining stemness and osteogenic potential, partially via the Wnt pathway. This represents a promising matrix for future applications in periodontal tissue regeneration therapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/jbm.a.36227

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