4 years ago

Effective Interlayer Engineering of Two-Dimensional VOPO4 Nanosheets via Controlled Organic Intercalation for Improving Alkali Ion Storage

Effective Interlayer Engineering of Two-Dimensional VOPO4 Nanosheets via Controlled Organic Intercalation for Improving Alkali Ion Storage
Judy J. Cha, Yu Wang, Yafei Li, Xu Peng, Lele Peng, Yujun Xie, Yue Zhu, Guihua Yu, Zhiwei Fang, Wangsheng Chu
Two-dimensional (2D) energy materials have shown the promising electrochemical characteristics for lithium ion storage. However, the decreased active surfaces and the sluggish charge/mass transport for beyond-lithium ion storage that has potential for large-scale energy storage systems, such as sodium or potassium ion storage, caused by the irreversible restacking of 2D materials during electrode processing remain a major challenge. Here we develop a general interlayer engineering strategy to address the above-mentioned challenges by using 2D ultrathin vanadyl phosphate (VOPO4) nanosheets as a model material for challenging sodium ion storage. Via controlled intercalation of organic molecules, such as triethylene glycol and tetrahydrofuran, the sodium ion transport in VOPO4 nanosheets has been significantly improved. In addition to advanced characterization including X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure to characterize the interlayer and the chemical bonding/configuration between the organic intercalants and the VOPO4 host layers, density functional theory calculations are also performed to understand the diffusion behavior of sodium ions in the pure and TEG intercalated VOPO4 nanosheets. Because of the expanded interlayer spacing in combination with the decreased energy barriers for sodium ion diffusion, intercalated VOPO4 nanosheets show much improved sodium ion transport kinetics and greatly enhanced rate capability and cycling stability for sodium ion storage. Our results afford deeper understanding of the interlayer-engineering strategy to improve the sodium ion storage performance of the VOPO4 nanosheets. Our results may also shed light on possible multivalent-ion based energy storage such as Mg2+ and Al3+.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02958

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02958

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