3 years ago

Uniqueness of Entamoeba sulfur metabolism: sulfolipid metabolism that plays pleiotropic roles in the parasitic life cycle

Uniqueness of Entamoeba sulfur metabolism: sulfolipid metabolism that plays pleiotropic roles in the parasitic life cycle
Tomofumi Miyamoto, Fumika Mi-Ichi, Hiroki Yoshida
Sulfur metabolism is ubiquitous and terminally synthesizes various biomolecules that are crucial for organisms, such as sulfur-containing amino acids and co-factors, sulfolipids, and sulfated saccharides. Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite responsible for amoebiasis, possesses the unique sulfur metabolism features of atypical localization and its terminal product being limited to sulfolipids. Here, we present an overall scheme of E. histolytica sulfur metabolism by relating all sulfotransferases and sulfatases to their substrates and products. Furthermore, a novel sulfur metabolite, fatty alcohol disulfates, was identified and shown to play an important role in trophozoite proliferation. Cholesteryl sulfate, another synthesized sulfolipid, was previously demonstrated to play an important role in encystation, a differentiation process from proliferative trophozoite to dormant cyst. Entamoeba survives by alternating between these two distinct forms; therefore, Entamoeba sulfur metabolism contributes to the parasitic life cycle via its terminal products. Interestingly, this unique feature of sulfur metabolism is not conserved in the non-parasitic close relative of Entamoeba, Mastigamoeba, because lateral gene transfer-mediated acquisition of sulfatases and sulfotransferases, critical enzymes conferring this feature, has only occurred in the Entamoeba lineage. Hence, our findings suggest that sulfolipid metabolism has a causal relationship with parasitism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. Sulfur metabolism in Entamoeba histolytica is atypically limited to the synthesis of sulfolipids. Here, we present an overall scheme of sulfur metabolism in E. histolytica, which was achieved using a new genetic approach, and also identified a novel sulfur metabolite, fatty alcohol disulfates that plays an important role in trophozoite proliferation. These results together with our previous findings indicate that Entamoeba sulfolipid metabolism contributes to the parasitic life cycle via its terminal products.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/mmi.13827

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