5 years ago

Effects of ozone exposure on human epithelial adenocarcinoma and normal fibroblasts cells

Antonella Bonfigli, Eleonora Aruffo, Anna Poma, Osvaldo Zarivi, Sabrina Colafarina, Piero Di Carlo, Sebastiano Di Bucchianico

by Anna Poma, Sabrina Colafarina, Eleonora Aruffo, Osvaldo Zarivi, Antonella Bonfigli, Sebastiano Di Bucchianico, Piero Di Carlo

Previous studies show variable ozone cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in cell cultures, laboratory animals and humans directly exposed to tropospheric ozone. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate and compare the cyto and genotoxic effects of ozone using adenocarcinoma human alveolar basal epithelial cells A549 and normal human fibroblasts Hs27. A cell culture chamber with controlled atmosphere (a simulation reactor) was built to inject a flow of 120 ppb of ozone, which is two times the threshold value for the protection of human health, fixed by the EU legislation. Cell proliferation was evaluated by a luminescent cell viability assay while we assessed the genotoxic potential of ozone by the induction of micronuclei as well as evaluating DNA strand breaks by the induction of micronuclei evaluated by means of the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay as well as evaluating DNA strand breaks by Alkaline Comet Assay (CA) or Comet Assay. A549 cells viability decreases significantly at 24 hours treatment with 120 ppb of O3 while at 48 hours and 72 hours O3 treated cells viability doesn’t differ in respect to the control. However a significative decrease of A549 viability is shown at 72 hours vs. 48 hours in both treated and not-treated cells. The viability trend in the Hs27 cells did not show any significant changes in treated samples compared to the control in all conditions. The two genotoxicity biomarkers, the micronucleus and the comet tests, showed in both the cell types exposed to ozone, a significant increase in the number of micronuclei and in the tail DNA % in respect to the control even if at different times/cell type. Moreover, we found that O3 provokes genotoxic effects more evident in A549 cancer cells than in normal fibroblasts Hs27 ones. We applied a cell growth simulation model referred to ozone treated or not cell lines to confirm that the ozone exposure causes a slackening in the cells replication.

Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article

DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0184519

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