3 years ago

Mg-Ion Battery Electrode: An Organic Solid’s Herringbone Structure Squeezed upon Mg-Ion Insertion

Mg-Ion Battery Electrode: An Organic Solid’s Herringbone Structure Squeezed upon Mg-Ion Insertion
P. Alex Greaney, Tianpin Wu, Ismael A. Rodríguez-Pérez, Clement Bommier, Xiulei Ji, Michael M. Lerner, Xingfeng Wang, Yifei Yuan, Lu Ma, Rich G. Carter, Jun Lu, Daniel P. Leonard
We report that crystalline 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA), an organic solid, is highly amenable to host divalent metal ions, i.e., Mg2+ and Ca2+, in aqueous electrolytes, where the van der Waals structure is intrinsically superior in hosting charge-dense ions. We observe that the divalent nature of Mg2+ causes unique squeezing deformation of the electrode structure, where it contracts and expands in different crystallographic directions when hosting the inserted Mg-ions. This phenomenon is revealed experimentally by ex situ X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, and is investigated theoretically by first-principles calculations. Interestingly, hosting one Mg2+ ion requires the coordination from three PTCDA molecules in adjacent columns of stacked molecules, which rotates the columns, thus reducing the (011) spacing but increasing the (021) spacing. We demonstrate that a PTCDA Mg-ion electrode delivers a reversible capacity of 125 mA h g–1, which may include a minor contribution of hydronium storage, a good rate capability by retaining 75 mA h g–1 at 500 mA g–1 (or 3.7 C), and a stable cycle life. We also report Ca2+ storage in PTCDA, where a reversible capacity of over 80 mA h g–1 is delivered.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.7b06313

DOI: 10.1021/jacs.7b06313

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