3 years ago

Composition of Anopheles mosquitoes, their blood-meal hosts, and Plasmodium falciparum infection rates in three islands with disparate bed net coverage in Lake Victoria, Kenya

Composition of Anopheles mosquitoes, their blood-meal hosts, and Plasmodium falciparum infection rates in three islands with disparate bed net coverage in Lake Victoria, Kenya
Daniel K Masiga, James Mutunga, Danspaid Mabuka, Benedict Orindi, Vincent Owino, David Omondi, Jandouwe Villinger, Edwin Ogola
Small islands serve as potential malaria reservoirs through which new infections might come to the mainland and may be important targets in malaria elimination efforts. This study investigated malaria vector species diversity, blood-meal hosts, Plasmodium infection rates, and long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage on Mageta, Magare and Ngodhe Islands of Lake Victoria in western Kenya, a region where extensive vector control is implemented on the mainland. From trapping for six consecutive nights per month (November 2012 to March 2015) using CDC light traps, pyrethrum spray catches and backpack aspiration, 1868 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected. Based on their cytochrome oxidase I (COI) and intergenic spacer region PCR and sequencing, Anopheles gambiae s.l. (68.52%), Anopheles coustani (19.81%) and Anopheles funestus s.l. (11.67%) mosquitoes were differentiated. The mean abundance of Anopheles mosquitoes per building per trap was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in Mageta than in Magare and Ngodhe. Mageta was also the most populated island (n = 6487) with low LLIN coverage of 62.35% compared to Ngodhe (n = 484; 88.31%) and Magare (n = 250; 98.59%). Overall, 416 (22.27%) engorged Anopheles mosquitoes were analysed, of which 41 tested positive for Plasmodium falciparum infection by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis of 18S rRNA and cytochrome b PCR products. Plasmodium falciparum infection rates were 10.00, 11.76, 0, and 18.75% among blood-fed An. gambiae s.s. (n = 320), Anopheles arabiensis (n = 51), An. funestus s.s. (n = 29), and An. coustani (n = 16), respectively. Based on HRM analysis of vertebrate cytochrome b, 16S rRNA and COI PCR products, humans (72.36%) were the prominent blood-meal hosts of malaria vectors, but 20.91% of blood-meals were from non-human vertebrate hosts. These findings demonstrate high Plasmodium infection rates among the primary malaria vectors An. gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis, as well as in An. coustani for the first time in the region, and that non-human blood-meal sources play an important role in their ecology. Further, the higher Anopheles mosquito abundances on the only low LLIN coverage island of Mageta suggests that high LLIN coverage has been effective in reducing malaria vector populations on Magare and Ngodhe Islands.
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