4 years ago

Protection against infectious bronchitis virus by spike ectodomain subunit vaccine

The avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) S1 subunit of the spike (S) glycoprotein mediates viral attachment to host cells and the S2 subunit is responsible for membrane fusion. Using IBV Arkansas-type (Ark) S protein histochemistry, we show that extension of S1 with the S2 ectodomain improves binding to chicken tissues. Although the S1 subunit is the major inducer of neutralizing antibodies, vaccination with S1 protein has been shown to confer inadequate protection against challenge. The demonstrated contribution of S2 ectodomain to binding to chicken tissues suggests that vaccination with the ectodomain might improve protection compared to vaccination with S1 alone. Therefore, we immunized chickens with recombinant trimeric soluble IBV Ark-type S1 or S-ectodomain protein produced from codon-optimized constructs in mammalian cells. Chickens were primed at 12days of age with water-in-oil emulsified S1 or S-ectodomain proteins, and then boosted 21days later. Challenge was performed with virulent Ark IBV 21days after boost. Chickens immunized with recombinant S-ectodomain protein showed statistically significantly (P <0.05) reduced viral loads 5days post-challenge in both tears and tracheas compared to chickens immunized with recombinant S1 protein. Consistent with viral loads, significantly reduced (P <0.05) tracheal mucosal thickness and tracheal lesion scores revealed that recombinant S-ectodomain protein provided improved protection of tracheal integrity compared to S1 protein. These results indicate that the S2 domain has an important role in inducing protective immunity. Thus, including the S2 domain with S1 might be promising for better viral vectored and/or subunit vaccine strategies.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0264410X1731229X

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