3 years ago

Enzyme-crosslinked Gene-activated Matrix for the Induction of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration

Enzyme-crosslinked Gene-activated Matrix for the Induction of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Osteochondral Tissue Regeneration
The development of osteochondral tissue engineering is an important issue for the treatment of traumatic injury or aging associated joint disease. However, the different compositions and mechanical properties of cartilage and subchondral bone show the complexity of this tissue interface, making it challenging for the design and fabrication of osteochondral graft substitute. In this study, a bilayer scaffold is developed to promote the regeneration of osteochondral tissue within a single integrated construct. It has the capacity to serve as a gene delivery platform to promote transfection of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and the functional osteochondral tissues formation. For the subchondral bone layer, the bone matrix with organic (type I collagen, Col) and inorganic (hydroxyapatite, Hap) composite scaffold has been developed through mineralization of hydroxyapatite nanocrystals oriented growth on collagen fibrils. We also prepare multi-shell nanoparticles in different layers with a calcium phosphate core and DNA/calcium phosphate shells conjugated with polyethyleneimine to act as non-viral vectors for delivery of plasmid DNA encoding BMP2 and TGF-β3, respectively. Microbial transglutaminase is used as a cross-linking agent to crosslink the bilayer scaffold. The ability of this scaffold to act as a gene-activated matrix is demonstrated with successful transfection efficiency. The results show that the sustained release of plasmids from gene-activated matrix can promote prolonged transgene expression and stimulate hMSCs differentiation into osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages by spatial and temporal control within the bilayer composite scaffold. This improved delivery method may enhance the functionalized composite graft to accelerate healing process for osteochondral tissue regeneration. Significance of this research study: In this study, a gene-activated matrix (GAM) to promote the growth of both cartilage and subchondral bone within a single integrated construct is developed. It has the capacity to promote transfection of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and the functional osteochondral tissues formation. The results show that the sustained release of plasmids including TGF-beta and BMP-2 from GAM could promote prolonged transgene expression and stimulate hMSCs differentiation into the osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages by spatial control manner. This improved delivery method should enhance the functionalized composite graft to accelerate healing process in vitro and in vivo for osteochondral tissue regeneration.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1742706117305688

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