4 years ago

Chronic Rhinosinusitis and the Evolving Understanding of Microbial Ecology in Chronic Inflammatory Mucosal Disease.

Wagner Mackenzie B, Hoggard M, Jain R, Biswas K, Douglas RG, Taylor MW
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) encompasses a heterogeneous group of debilitating chronic inflammatory sinonasal diseases. Despite considerable research, the etiology of CRS remains poorly understood, and debate on potential roles of microbial communities is unresolved. Modern culture-independent (molecular) techniques have vastly improved our understanding of the microbiology of the human body. Recent studies that better capture the full complexity of the microbial communities associated with CRS reintroduce the possible importance of the microbiota either as a direct driver of disease or as being potentially involved in its exacerbation. This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the current understanding of bacterial, fungal, and viral associations with CRS, with a specific focus on the transition to the new perspective offered in recent years by modern technology in microbiological research. Clinical implications of this new perspective, including the role of antimicrobials, are discussed in depth. While principally framed within the context of CRS, this discussion also provides an analogue for reframing our understanding of many similarly complex and poorly understood chronic inflammatory diseases for which roles of microbes have been suggested but specific mechanisms of disease remain unclear. Finally, further technological advancements on the horizon, and current pressing questions for CRS microbiological research, are considered.

Publisher URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27903594

DOI: PubMed:27903594

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