5 years ago

Biomarkers in atrial fibrillation and heart failure.

Briasoulis A, Papamikroulis GA, Gennimata V, Tousoulis D, Theofilis P, Vavuranakis M, Vogiatzi G, Oikonomou E, Papaioannou S, Zografos T, Siasos G
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained arrhythmia encountered in clinical practice and an important contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the exact mechanisms behind AF are not completely elucidated, the underlying pathophysiological changes have been well described. Predisposal factors for AF include the older age, the increased left atrial size, the decreased left atrial function, the presence of heart failure and left ventricular systolic dysfunction and the presence of coronary heart disease or pulmonary or mitral valve disease. In addition to these factors, emerging evidence demonstrate that myocardial strain, fibrosis and inflammation, are associated with AF as well as the pathogenesis of the arrhythmia. The natruretic peptide system including Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP), Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) and C-type Natriuretic Peptide (CNP) is indicative of the level of myocardial strain which may predispose to AF. As a result, the aforementioned peptides are increased in AF patients. The levels of myocardial fibrosis biomarkers, such as ST2 and Galectin-3, are elevated suggesting atrial structural abnormalities, while the increased levels of CRP and Interleukin-6 supplement the inflammatory profile of AF patients. Emerging data for the aforementioned biomarkers are discussed in the present review.

Publisher URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28875838

DOI: PubMed:28875838

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