Isolation and Purification of Alkaloids from the Fruits of Macleaya cordata by Ionic‐Liquid‐Modified High Speed Counter‐Current Chromatography
Macleaya cordata (Willd) R. Br. is a medicinal plant. The most important bioactive compounds of M. cordata are alkaloids that have many biological activities including anti‐fungal, anti‐inflammatory, and anti‐tumor. In this study, an ionic‐liquid‐modified high speed counter‐current chromatography method was established to obtain alkaloids from the fruits of M. cordata. The conditions of ionic‐liquid‐modified high speed counter‐current chromatography, including solvent systems, the content of an ionic liquid (1‐butyl‐3‐methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate [C4mim][BF4]), and the post‐treatment of the ionic liquid, were investigated. Five alkaloids protopine, allocryptopine, sanguinarine, 8‐O‐demethylchelerythrine, and chelerythrine were separated from the extract of the fruits using a high speed counter‐current chromatography with two‐phase solvent system composed of dichloromethane/methanol/0.3 mol/L hydrochloric acid aqueous solution/[C4mim][BF4] (4:2:2:0.015, v/v). Their purities were 96.33%, 95.56%, 97.94%, 96.22%, and 97.90%, respectively. The results indicated that a small amount of ionic liquids as modifier of the two‐phase solvent system could shorten the separation time and improve the separation efficiency of the alkaloids from the fruits. The ionic‐liquid‐modified high speed counter‐current chromatography would provide a feasible way for highly effective separation of alkaloids from natural products.
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