Pathogenesis and Prevention of Worsening Axial Elongation in Pathological Myopia
1Oregon Eye Consultants, Eugene, Oregon, USA; 2PSG Institute of Medical Sciences & Research, Coimbatore, India; 3Pacific ClearVision Institute, Eugene, Oregon, USA
Correspondence: Allan A Hunter
Oregon Eye Consultants, 1550 Oak St. Suite 7, Eugene, Oregon 97401, USA
Tel +1 541-687-1927
Purpose: This review discusses the etiology and pathogenesis of myopia, prevention of disease progression and worsening axial elongation, and emerging myopia treatment modalities.
Introduction: Pediatric myopia is a public health concern that impacts young children worldwide and is associated with numerous future ocular diseases such as cataract, glaucoma, retinal detachment and other chorioretinal abnormalities. While the exact mechanism of myopia of the human eye remains obscure, several studies have reported on the role of environmental and genetic factors in the disease development.
Methods: A review of literature was conducted. PubMed and Medline were searched for combinations and derivatives of the keywords including, but not limited to, "pediatric myopia", "axial elongation", "scleral remodeling" or "atropine." The PubMed and Medline database search were performed for randomized control trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses using the same keyword combinations.
Results: Studies have reported that detection of genetic correlations and modification of environmental influences may have a significant impact in myopia progression, axial elongation and future myopic ocular complications. The conventional pharmacotherapy of pediatric myopia addresses the improvement in visual acuity and prevention of amblyopia but does not affect axial elongation or myopia progression. Several studies have published varying treatments, including optical, pharmacological and surgical management, which show great promise for a more precise control of myopia and preservation of ocular health.
Discussion: Understanding the role of factors influencing the onset and progression of pediatric myopia will facilitate the development of successful treatments, reduction of disease burden, arrest of progression and improvement in future of the management of myopia.
Keywords: pediatric myopia, axial elongation, myopia maculopathies, scleral remodeling, myopic foveoschisis, atropine in the treatment of myopia (ATOM) study, macular buckle