Biochemical and behavior effects induced by diheptyl phthalate (DHpP) and Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP) exposed to zebrafish
Both Diheptyl-phthalate (DHpP) and Diisodecyl-phthalate (DIDP) were used extensively as plasticizers. Recently, their occurrence in the environmental matrices and human body fluids have been reported. Unfortunately, these phthalate congeners are without basic toxicity profiles. Hence, we studied the toxic effects of both DHpP and DIDP in the median lethal concentration (LC50 96-h) on zebrafish (Danio rerio). We assessed swimming behavior strength and tissues biomarker responses including total antioxidants capacity (TAOC), transaminases, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme. Fish exposed to phthalate congeners (Treatment-I and-II) for 15-days showed alterations on fish swimming behavior and circadian rhythm. At the end of the exposure period, both liver and heart tissue transaminases activities were found to be accelerated in DHpP and DIDP treated fish, when compared to control group. TAOC and AChE activities were found to be decreased in brain, gills, intestine, and muscle tissues of phthalate congeners treated fish than the control group. Alterations observed in the studied biomarkers were concentration-based response. Among treatment groups DHpP showed higher effects. Comparative studies on swimming behavior and biochemical activities were reasonable to know the swimming responses are mediated due to external stress or internal stress. More studies on molecular and biomarkers assessments are warranted on toxicity of emerging contaminants.