Cardiovascular toxicity and mechanism of bisphenol A and emerging risk of bisphenol S
Epidemiological and animal studies indicate that increased exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) induces various human cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, dilated cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, and hypertension. Bisphenol S (BPS), an alternative to BPA, is increasingly present in various consumer products and human bodies worldwide. Recently, emerging evidence has shown that BPS might be related to cardiovascular disorders. In this review, we present striking evidence of the correlation between BPA exposure and various CVDs, and show that a nonmonotonic dose-response curve (NMDRC) was common in studies of the CV effects of BPA in vivo. The CV impairment induced by low doses of BPA should be highlighted, especially during developmental exposure or during coexposure with other risk factors. Furthermore, we explored the possible underlying mechanisms of these effects—particularly nuclear receptor signaling, ion channels, and epigenetic mechanisms—and the possible participation of lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and cell signaling. As the potential risks of BPA exposure in humans are still noteworthy, studies of BPA in CVDs should be strengthened, especially with respect to the mechanisms, prevention and treatment. Moreover, the potential CV risk of BPS reported by in vivo studies calls for immediate epidemiological investigations and animal studies to reveal the relationships of BPS and other BPA alternatives with human CVDs.