Prediction of paclitaxel pharmacokinetic based on in vitro studies: interaction with membrane models and human serum albumin
Interactions of paclitaxel (PTX) with models mimicking biological interfaces (lipid membranes and serum albumin, HSA) were investigated to test the hypothesis that the set of in vitro assays proposed can be used to predict some aspects of drug pharmacokinetics (PK). PTX membrane partitioning was studied by derivative spectrophotometry; PTX effect on membrane biophysics was evaluated by dynamic light scattering, fluorescence anisotropy, atomic force microscopy and synchrotron small/wide-angle X-ray scattering; PTX distribution/molecular orientation in membranes was assessed by steady-state/time-resolved fluorescence and computer simulations. PTX binding to HSA was studied by fluorescence quenching, derivative spectrophotometry and dynamic/electrophoretic light scattering. PTX high membrane partitioning is consistent with its efficacy crossing cellular membranes and its off-target distribution. PTX is closely located in the membrane phospholipids headgroups, also interacting with the hydrophobic chains, and causes a major distortion of the alignment of the membrane phospholipids, which, together with its fluidizing effect, justifies some of its cellular toxic effects. PTX binds strongly to HSA, which is consistent with its reduced distribution in target tissues and toxicity by bioaccumulation. In conclusion, the described set of biomimetic models and techniques has the potential for early prediction of PK issues, alerting for the required drug optimizations, potentially minimizing the number of animal tests used in the drug development process.