3 years ago

Ostendit caput, ostendit corpus (In Ps. 147, 18). L'exégèse augustinienne de l'apparition aux apôtres en Lc 24, 36-49

Isabelle Bochet
L'article étudie la manière dont Augustin a développé son exégèse de l'apparition du Christ ressuscité aux disciples en Lc 24, 36-49, d'abord dans le contexte de la controverse antimanichéenne, puis à l'occasion de la lutte antidonatiste, enfin en lien avec sa réflexion sur la condition des corps ressuscités dans la Lettre 205 à Consentius et dans le Sermon 242. Augustin utilise Lc 24, 39 pour défendre la vérité de la chair du Christ contre les manichéens et pour penser la condition des corps ressuscités, à l'époque de la rédaction de la Cité de Dieu. Il cite Lc 24, 47 comme un leitmotiv dans la controverse antidonatiste, pour établir que la véritable Église du Christ est celle qui est répandue parmi toutes les nations, c'est-à-dire l'Église catholique. Les deux versets sont souvent cités ensemble, afin de montrer que les deux affirmations de foi sont indissociables : il est inconséquent d'admettre la réalité de la chair du Christ en raison de Lc 24, 39, tout en refusant de reconnaître l'universalité de l'Église clairement énoncée en Lc 24, 47. La péricope de Lc 24, 36-49 fait connaître à la fois la Tête et le Corps du Christ : « Ostendit caput, ostendit corpus. » The paper examines how Augustine developed his exegesis of the appearance of the risen Christ to the disciples in Lk 24:36-49, first in the context of the anti-Manichean controversy, then in the context of the anti-Donatist struggle, and finally in relation to his reflection on the condition of the risen bodies in Letter 205 to Consentius and in Sermon 242. Augustine uses Lk 24:39 to defend the truth of the flesh of Christ against the Manicheans and to think about the condition of the risen bodies at the time of the writing of the City of God. He cites Lk 24:47 as a leitmotif in the antidonatist controversy, to establish that the true Church of Christ is the one that is spread among all nations, that is, the Catholic Church. The two verses are often quoted together, in order to show that the two statements of faith are inseparable: it is inconsistent to admit the reality of the flesh of Christ because of Lk 24:39, while refusing to recognize the universality of the Church clearly stated in Lk 24:47. The pericope of Lk 24:36-49 makes known both the Head and the Body of Christ: "Ostendit caput, ostendit corpus."

Publisher URL: https://www.brepolsonline.net/doi/abs/10.1484/J.REA.5.120340

DOI: 10.1484/J.REA.5.120340

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