Ampholine immobilized polymer microspheres for increasing coverage of human urinary proteome
Urinary proteome, as an important component of body fluid proteome, could reflect kidney, urogenital tract function and pathological changes of human organs. This study reports a convenient strategy for urine proteome analysis through ampholine immobilized polymer microsphere () fractionation strategy. After treatment, 16,543 unique peptides corresponding to 2173 non-redundant urinary proteins were identified, while only 856 proteins, corresponding to 3524 peptides were identified in the crude urine sample. The number of proteins and peptides was increased by 1.54 and 3.69 times, respectively. 31 urinary candidate biomarkers have also been identified (17 candidate biomarkers of glomerular injury and 14 candidate biomarkers of tubular injury), showing the potential of our strategy in urinary biomarker discovery study. In additional to the urine proteome, N-glycoproteome analysis was also performed after fractionation followed by the N-glycopeptides enrichment. The number was increased from 144 to 281 for N-glycoproteins, 261 to 709 for N-glycopeptides, and 226 to 493 for N-glycosylation sites, after treatment. Based on the significant increase on the identified N-glycoprotein number, fractionation strategy also offered a beneficial tool for the post translational modification analysis of urine proteome.