3 years ago

Subanesthetic ketamine reactivates adult cortical plasticity to restore vision from amblyopia

Steven F Grieco, Xin Qiao, Xiaoting Zheng, Yongjun Liu, Lujia Chen, Hai Zhang, Jeffrey Gavornik, Cary Lai, Sunil Gandhi, Todd C Holmes, Xiangmin Xu
Subanesthetic ketamine evokes rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects in human patients. The mechanism for ketamine effects remains elusive, but ketamine may broadly modulate brain plasticity processes. We show that single-dose ketamine reactivates adult mouse visual cortical plasticity and promotes functional recovery of visual acuity defects from amblyopia. Ketamine specifically induces down-regulation of neuregulin-1 (NRG1) expression in parvalbumin-expressing (PV) inhibitory neurons in mouse visual cortex. NRG1 downregulation in PV neurons co-tracks both the fast onset and sustained decreases in synaptic inhibition to excitatory neurons, along with reduced synaptic excitation to PV neurons in vitro and in vivo following a single ketamine treatment. These effects are blocked by exogenous NRG1 as well as PV targeted receptor knockout. Thus ketamine reactivation of adult visual cortical plasticity is mediated through rapid and sustained cortical disinhibition via downregulation of PV-specific NRG1 signaling. Our findings reveal the neural plasticity-based mechanism for ketamine-mediated functional recovery from adult amblyopia.
Open access
You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.