5 years ago

Exosite 2-Directed Ligands Attenuate Protein C Activation by the Thrombin–Thrombomodulin Complex

Exosite 2-Directed Ligands Attenuate Protein C Activation by the Thrombin–Thrombomodulin Complex
Paul Y. Kim, Jeffrey I. Weitz, Kai Chen, Calvin H. Yeh, Alan R. Stafford, James C. Fredenburgh, Chengliang Wu
Thrombin activity, inhibition, and localization are regulated by two exosites that flank the active site. Substrates, cofactors, and inhibitors bind to exosite 1 to promote active site access, whereas exosite 2 interactions hold thrombin on cells, platelets, and proteins. The exosites also serve allosteric roles, whereby ligand binding alters thrombin activity. Previously, we showed that ligands that bind exosite 2 attenuate the exosite 1-mediated interaction of thrombin with fibrin, demonstrating allosteric connection between the exosites. To determine the functional consequences of these inter-exosite interactions, we examined the effect of exosite 2 ligands on thrombin’s interaction with thrombomodulin, a key cofactor that binds exosite 1 and redirects thrombin activity to the anticoagulant protein C pathway. Exosite 2-directed ligands, which included the HD22 aptamer, glycoprotein 1bα-derived peptide, and fibrinogen γ′-chain peptide, reduced the level of exosite 1-mediated thrombin binding to the thrombomodulin peptide consisting of the fourth, fifth, and sixth epidermal-like growth factor-like domains, decreasing affinity by >10-fold, and attenuated thrombomodulin-dependent activation of protein C by 60–80%. The ligands had similar effects on thrombin-mediated protein C activation with intact soluble thrombomodulin and with thrombomodulin on the surface of cultured endothelial cells. Their activity was exosite 2-specific because it was attenuated when RA-thrombin, a variant lacking exosite 2, was used in place of thrombin. These results indicate that additional reactions mediated by exosite 1 are amenable to regulation by exosite 2 ligation, providing further evidence of inter-exosite allosteric regulation of thrombin activity.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00250

DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00250

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