5 years ago

Antidiabetic Disruptors of the Glucokinase−Glucokinase Regulatory Protein Complex Reorganize a Coulombic Interface

Antidiabetic Disruptors of the Glucokinase−Glucokinase Regulatory Protein Complex Reorganize a Coulombic Interface
Brian G. Miller, Juliana A. Martinez, Armen Zakarian, Qing Xiao
The glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP) plays an essential role in glucose homeostasis by acting as a competitive inhibitor of glucokinase (GCK) and triggering its localization to the hepatocyte nucleus upon glucose deprivation. Metabolites such as fructose 6-phosphate and sorbitol 6-phosphate promote assembly of the GCK–GKRP complex, whereas fructose 1-phosphate and functionalized piperazines with potent in vivo antidiabetic activity disrupt the complex. Here, we establish the molecular basis by which these natural and synthetic ligands modulate the GCK–GKRP interaction. We demonstrate that a small-molecule disruptor of the protein–protein interaction utilizes a two-step conformational selection mechanism to associate with a rare GKRP conformation constituting 3% of the total population. Conformational heterogeneity of GKRP is localized to the N-terminus and deleting this region eliminates the ability of sorbitol 6-phosphate to promote the GCK–GKRP interaction. Stabilizing ligands favor an extended N-terminus, which sterically positions two arginine residues for optimal Coulombic interaction with a pair of carboxylate side chains from GCK. Conversely, disruptors promote a more compact N-terminus in which an interfacial arginine residue is stabilized in an unproductive orientation through a cation-π interaction with tyrosine 75. Eliminating the ability to sample this binding impaired conformation enhances the intrinsic inhibitory activity of GKRP. Elucidating the molecular basis of ligand-mediated control over the GCK–GKRP interaction is expected to impact the development and future refinement of therapeutic agents for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which result from improper GKRP regulation of GCK.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00377

DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00377

You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.