3 years ago

HIV-1 exploits dynamic multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex to enhance viral replication.

St-Gelais C, Duchon AA, Hatterschide J, Titkemeier N, Musier-Forsyth K, Wu L
A hallmark of retroviruses such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is reverse transcription of genomic RNA to DNA, a process that is primed by cellular tRNAs. HIV-1 recruits human tRNALys3 to serve as the reverse transcription primer via an interaction between lysyl-tRNA synthetase (LysRS) and the HIV-1 Gag polyprotein. LysRS is normally sequestered in a multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC). Previous studies demonstrated that components of the MSC can be mobilized in response to certain cellular stimuli, but how LysRS is redirected from the MSC to viral particles for packaging is unknown. Here, we show that upon HIV-1 infection, a free pool of non-MSC associated LysRS is observed and partially relocalized to the nucleus. Heat inactivation of HIV-1 blocks nuclear localization of LysRS but treatment with a reverse transcriptase inhibitor does not, suggesting that the trigger for relocalization occurs prior to reverse transcription. A reduction in HIV-1 infection is observed upon treatment with an inhibitor to mitogen-activated protein kinase that prevents phosphorylation of LysRS on Ser207, release of LysRS from the MSC and nuclear localization. A phosphomimetic mutant of LysRS (S207D), that lacked the capability to aminoacylate tRNALys3, localized to the nucleus, rescued HIV-1 infectivity, and was packaged into virions. In contrast, a phosphoablative mutant (S207A) remained cytosolic and maintained full aminoacylation activity, but failed to rescue infectivity and was not packaged. These findings suggest that HIV-1 takes advantage of the dynamic nature of the MSC to redirect and co-opt cellular translation factors to enhance viral replication.IMPORTANCE Human tRNALys3, the primer for reverse transcription, and LysRS are essential host factors packaged into HIV-1 virions. Previous studies found that tRNALys3 packaging depends on interactions between LysRS and HIV-1 Gag; however, many details regarding the mechanism of tRNALys3 and LysRS packaging remain unknown. LysRS is normally sequestered in a high molecular weight multi-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex (MSC), restricting the pool of free LysRS:tRNALys Mounting evidence suggests that LysRS is released under a variety of stimuli to perform alternative functions within the cell. Here, we show that HIV-1 infection results in a free pool of LysRS that is re-localized to the nucleus of target cells. Blocking this pathway in HIV-1 producing cells resulted in less infectious progeny virions. Understanding the mechanism by which LysRS is recruited into the viral assembly pathway can be exploited for the development of specific and effective therapeutics targeting this non-translational function.

Publisher URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28814526

DOI: PubMed:28814526

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