4 years ago

Fundamental Niche Prediction Of The Pathogenic Yeasts Cryptococcus Neoformans And Cryptococcus Gattii In Europe

Stéphane Ranque, Anna Marchese, Sebastien Bertout, Volker Rickerts, Cristina Macci, Ashok Varma, Emilija Mlinaric-Missoni, Antonio Scopa, Teun Boekhout, Serdar Susever, Erika Puccianti, Macit Ilkit, Kyung J. Kwon-Chung, Luigi Vezzulli, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Ana C. Sampaio, Sevim Akcaglar, Mohamed S. Ellabib, Maria F. Colom, Vincenzo Pasquale, Marie Desnos-Ollivier, Ludovico Dipineto, Simona Nardoni, Maria Teresa Montagna, Nilgun Cerikcioglu, Massimo Cogliati, Cagri Ergin, Ana C.F. Vencà, Françoise Dromer, Laura Trovato, Antonella De Donno, Ferry Hagen, Itzhack Polacheck, Giuseppe Criseo, Aristea Velegraki, Wieland Meyer, Joäo Inácio
Fundamental niche prediction of Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii in Europe is an important tool to understand where these yeasts have a high probability to survive in the environment and therefore to identify the areas with high risk of infection. In the present study occurrence data for C. neoformans and C. gattii were compared by MaxEnt software with several bioclimatic conditions as well as with soil characteristics and land use. The results showed that C. gattii distribution can be predicted with high probability along the Mediterranean coast. The analysis of variables showed that its distribution is limited by low temperatures during the coldest season, and by heavy precipitations in the driest season. C. neoformans var. grubii is able to colonize the same areas of C. gattii but is more tolerant to cold winter temperatures and summer precipitations. In contrast, the C. neoformans var. neoformans map was completely different. The best conditions for its survival were displayed in sub-continental areas and not along the Mediterranean coasts. In conclusion, we produced for the first time detailed prediction maps of the species and varieties of the C. neoformans and C. gattii species complex in Europe and Mediterranean area. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.13915

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