5 years ago

HRS plays an important role for TLR7 signaling to orchestrate inflammation and innate immunity upon EV71 infection

Zhi Qiao, Zhen Luo, Mingfu Tian, Maolin Ge, Chengliang Zhu, Fang Liu, Qi Zhang, Yingle Liu, Kailang Wu, Jianguo Wu, Lan Bai, Junbo Chen, Qibin Geng, Ying Xiong

by Zhen Luo, Maolin Ge, Junbo Chen, Qibin Geng, Mingfu Tian, Zhi Qiao, Lan Bai, Qi Zhang, Chengliang Zhu, Ying Xiong, Kailang Wu, Fang Liu, Yingle Liu, Jianguo Wu

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an RNA virus that causes hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD), and even fatal encephalitis in children. Although EV71 pathogenesis remains largely obscure, host immune responses may play important roles in the development of diseases. Recognition of pathogens mediated by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) induces host immune and inflammatory responses. Intracellular TLRs must traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the endolysosomal network from where they initiate complete signaling, leading to inflammatory response. This study reveals a novel mechanism underlying the regulation of TLR7 signaling during EV71 infection. Initially, we show that multiple cytokines are differentially expressed during viral infection and demonstrate that EV71 infection induces the production of proinflammatory cytokines through regulating TLR7-mediated p38 MAPK, and NF-κB signaling pathways. Further studies reveal that the expression of the endosome-associated protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HRS) is upregulated and highly correlated with the expression of TLR7 in EV71 infected patients, mice, and cultured cells. Virus-induced HRS subsequently enhances TLR7 complex formation in early- and late-endosome by interacting with TLR7 and TAB1. Moreover, HRS is involved in the regulation of the TLR7/NF-κB/p38 MAPK and the TLR7/NF-κB/IRF3 signaling pathways to induce proinflammatory cytokines and interferons, respectively, resulting in the orchestration of inflammatory and immune responses to the EV71 infection. Therefore, this study demonstrates that HRS acts as a key component of TLR7 signaling to orchestrate immune and inflammatory responses during EV71 infection, and provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying the regulation of host inflammation and innate immunity during EV71 infection.
You might also like
Discover & Discuss Important Research

Keeping up-to-date with research can feel impossible, with papers being published faster than you'll ever be able to read them. That's where Researcher comes in: we're simplifying discovery and making important discussions happen. With over 19,000 sources, including peer-reviewed journals, preprints, blogs, universities, podcasts and Live events across 10 research areas, you'll never miss what's important to you. It's like social media, but better. Oh, and we should mention - it's free.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.