5 years ago

Exosomes in Toxicology: Relevance to Chemical Exposure and Pathogenesis of Environmentally Linked Diseases.

Ghaisas S, Harischandra DS, Rokad D, Kanthasamy AG
Chronic exposure to environmental toxins has been known to initiate or aggravate various neurological disorders, carcinomas and other adverse health effects. Uptake by naïve cells of pathogenic factors such as danger-associated molecules, mRNAs, miRNAs or aggregated proteins leads to disruption in cellular homeostasis further resulting in inflammation and disease propagation. While early research tended to focus solely on exosomal removal of unwanted cellular contents, more recent reports indicate that these nano-vesicles play an active role in intercellular signaling. Not only is the exosomal cargo cell type-specific, but it also differs between healthy and dying cells. Moreover, following exosome uptake by naïve cells, the contents from these vesicles can alter the fate of recipient cells. Since exosomes can traverse long distances, they can influence distantly located cells and tissues. This review briefly explores the role played by environmental toxins in stimulating exosome release in the context of progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and Huntington's, as well as certain cancers such as lung, liver, ovarian and tracheal carcinomas.

Publisher URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28505322

DOI: PubMed:28505322

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