3 years ago

Troglitazone inhibits bile acid amidation: a possible risk factor for liver injury.

Ogimura E, Deguchi J, Ito K, Bando K, Nakagawa T, Sekine S
Troglitazone and pioglitazone were developed as thiazolidinedione-type antidiabetes drugs, but only troglitazone was withdrawn from the markets due to severe liver injury. As both troglitazone and its sulfate metabolite are strong inhibitors of the bile salt export pump (BSEP), troglitazone-induced bile acid (BA) retention is thought to be one of the underlying mechanisms of liver injury. However, pioglitazone is also a strong BSEP inhibitor, indicating other mechanisms may also be involved in troglitazone-induced BA retention. Although retention of hydrophobic BAs (eg, chenodeoxycholic acid [CDCA]: a nonamidated BA) is known to cause hepatocyte injury, little is known about the hepatic conversion of nonamidated, hydrophobic BA species into less toxic hydrophilic BAs (eg, glycochenodeoxycholic acid: amidated BA) as a mechanism of drug-induced liver injury. In this study, we, therefore, investigated the effects of troglitazone and pioglitazone on BA amidation and the role of amidated BAs in troglitazone-associated BA-mediated hepatotoxicity. We also evaluated the intracellular BA composition of human hepatocytes treated with nonamidated BA species (CDCA or deoxycholic acid [DCA]) in the presence of troglitazone or pioglitazone. Amidation of CDCA and DCA was significantly inhibited by troglitazone (IC50: 5 and 3 µmol/l, respectively), but not pioglitazone. Moreover, treatment with troglitazone led to the retention of CDCA and DCA and decrease of glycine-amidation in hepatocytes. From these results, we suggest that troglitazone-induced liver injury might be caused by the accumulation of nonamidated BAs in hepatocytes due to inhibition of BA amidation.

Publisher URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28486596

DOI: PubMed:28486596

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