SIDT2 Transports Extracellular dsRNA into the Cytoplasm for Innate Immune Recognition
Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is a common by-product of viral infections and acts as a potent trigger of antiviral immunity. In the nematode C. elegans, sid-1 encodes a dsRNA transporter that is highly conserved throughout animal evolution, but the physiological role of SID-1 and its orthologs remains unclear. Here, we show that the mammalian SID-1 ortholog, SIDT2, is required to transport internalized extracellular dsRNA from endocytic compartments into the cytoplasm for immune activation. Sidt2-deficient mice exposed to extracellular dsRNA, encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) show impaired production of antiviral cytokines and—in the case of EMCV and HSV-1—reduced survival. Thus, SIDT2 has retained the dsRNA transport activity of its C. elegans ortholog, and this transport is important for antiviral immunity.
Publisher URL: http://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(17)30365-5
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