3 years ago

Nine Novel PAX9 Mutations and a Distinct Tooth Agenesis Genotype-Phenotype.

Liu H, Bai B, Wang Y, Zhang H, Han D, Frazier-Bowers SA, Zhang X, Feng H, Zhao N, Wong SW, Wang YX, Zeng L, Miao MZ, Liu Y
Tooth agenesis is one of the most common developmental anomalies affecting function and esthetics. The paired-domain transcription factor, Pax9, is critical for patterning and morphogenesis of tooth and taste buds. Mutations of PAX9 have been identified in patients with tooth agenesis. Despite significant progress in the genetics of tooth agenesis, many gaps in knowledge exist in refining the genotype-phenotype correlation between PAX9 and tooth agenesis. In the present study, we complete genetic and phenotypic characterization of multiplex Chinese families with nonsyndromic (NS) tooth agenesis. Direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction products revealed 9 novel (c.140G>C, c.167T>A, c.332G>C, c.194C>A, c.271A>T, c.146delC, c.185_189dup, c.256_262dup, and c.592delG) and 2 known heterozygous mutations in the PAX9 gene among 120 probands. Subsequently, pedigrees were extended, and we confirmed that the mutations co-segregated with the tooth agenesis phenotype (with exception of families in which DNA analysis was not available). In 1 family ( n = 6), 2 individuals harbored both the PAX9 c.592delG mutation and a heterozygous missense mutation (c.739C>T) in the MSX1 gene. Clinical characterization of families segregating a PAX9 mutation reveal that all affected individuals were missing the mandibular second molar and their maxillary central incisors are most susceptible to microdontia. A significant reduction of bitter taste perception was documented in individuals harboring PAX9 mutations ( n = 3). Functional studies revealed that PAX9 haploinsufficiency or a loss of function of the PAX9 protein underlies tooth agenesis.

Publisher URL: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28910570

DOI: PubMed:28910570

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