5 years ago

Focus group study to identify the central facets of fear of hypoglycaemia in people with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

J. Grammes, C. G. Mann, W. Stock, T. Kubiak, E. M. Flynn
Aims To determine key worries about hypoglycaemia among insulin-using adults with Type 2 diabetes using a focus group approach. Methods Thirteen focus groups were conducted in three diabetes outpatient care units and one peer support group was set up, in Germany. A total of 64 insulin-dependent adults with Type 2 diabetes (36.5% women, mean age 65.2 ± 11.0 years) discussed their worries about hypoglycaemia. The qualitative results were assigned into thematic categories using a bottom-up coding procedure. Participants completed the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey and demographic measures were recorded. The results of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey were contrasted with the focus group findings to evaluate how accurately the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey comprehensively captures features of fear of hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes. Results Eight themes were identified: ‘unconsciousness/death’; ‘aloneness/ helplessness’, ‘fear of hurting somebody’; ‘shame’; ‘loss of physical control’; ‘long-term complications’; ‘diabetes self-management issues’; and ‘impaired awareness’. A total of 30 participants (46.9 %) scored ≥3 on at least one item of the Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey worry subscale, indicating elevated worries. The Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey comprehensively captured all identified themes. Self-efficacy with regard to diabetes self-management seemed to play an important role in fear of hypoglycaemia in Type 2 diabetes. Conclusions Given that even subclinical worries can have negative effects on quality of life and diabetes self-management, emphasis should be placed on diabetes education; in particular, to help patients to develop self-efficacy concerning diabetes self-management. The Hypoglycaemia Fear Survey comprehensively captures hypoglycaemia worries in Type 2 diabetes. Additional assessment of self-efficacy might be beneficial to identify people at risk of developing hypoglycaemia worries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/dme.13506

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