5 years ago

The Turner syndrome life course project: Karyotype-phenotype analyses across the lifespan

Thomas F. J. King, Clementina La Rosa, Antoinette Cameron- Pimblett, Melanie C. Davies, Gerard S. Conway
Introduction Turner syndrome (TS) is associated with a variety of morbidities affecting nearly every body system, some of which increase in prevalence in adult life. The severity of clinical features in TS is roughly in parallel with the magnitude of the deficit of X-chromosome material. The aim of this study was to extend the established karyotype-phenotype relationships using data from a large adult cohort. Materials and Methods Karyotypes were available in 656 women with TS. 611 of whom could be classified into five major groups within the cohort: 45,X; 45,X mosaicism (45,X/46,XX); isochromosome X (isochromosome Xq); mosaicism 45,X/46,XY and ring X. Continuous variables such as blood pressure and biochemical markers from clinic data were binarised allocating those in the upper quartile to represent at-risk individuals. With the exception of bone mineral density T-score for which the lower quartile was allocated as at risk. For comorbidities, initiation of formal treatment was recorded. Results 45,X/46,XX had considerably lower frequency of comorbidities compared to 45,X. The isochromosome group experienced similar outcomes to 45,X. Novel associations were found between the XY mosaic karyotype group and a decreased prevalence of thyroid disease and severe hearing loss. A previously unreported increased incidence of metabolic syndrome was noted within the ring chromosome subgroup. Conclusions Karyotype may play an important factor against stratifying risk of comorbidity in TS and should be taken into consideration when managing adults with TS. Further investigations of the isochromosome (Xq) and ring groups are necessary to further clarify their associations with comorbidities.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/cen.13394

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