5 years ago

Characteristics and outcomes of patients with profound hyponatraemia due to primary polydipsia

Isabelle Suter-Widmer, Birsen Arici, Nicole Nigro, Bettina Winzeler, Mirjam Christ-Crain, Philipp Schuetz, Clara O. Sailer, Beat Mueller, Martina Bally
Objective Hyponatraemia due to excessive fluid intake (ie primary polydipsia [PP]) is common. It may culminate in profound hyponatraemia—carrying considerable risk of morbidity. However, data on patients with PP leading to hyponatraemia are lacking. Herein, we describe the characteristics of polydiptic patients hospitalized with profound hyponatraemia and assess 1-year outcomes. Design Substudy of the prospective observational Co-MED Study. Patients Patients with an episode of profound hyponatraemia (≤125 mmol/L) due to PP in the medical emergency were eligible and classified into psychogenic polydipsia (PsyP), dipsogenic polydipsia (DiP) and beer potomania (BP). Measurements Symptoms, laboratory findings and factors contributing to hyponatraemia (comorbidities, medication and liquid intake) were assessed. A 1-year follow-up was performed to evaluate recurrence of hyponatraemia, readmission rate and mortality. Results Twenty-three patients were included (median age 56 years [IQR 50-65], 74% female), seven had PsyP, eight had DiP and eight had BP. Median serum sodium of all patients was 121 mmol/L (IQR 114-123), median urine osmolality 167 mmol/L (IQR 105-184) and median copeptin 3.6 mmol/L (IQR 1.9-5.5). Psychiatric diagnoses, particularly dependency disorder (43%) and depression (35%), were highly prevalent. Factors provoking hyponatraemia were found in all patients (eg acute water load, medication, stress). During the follow-up period, 67% of patients were readmitted, 52% of these with rehyponatraemia, and three patients (38%) with BP died. Conclusion Patients with PP are more likely to be female and to have addictive and affective disorders. Given the high recurrence, rehospitalization and mortality rate, careful monitoring and long-term follow-up including controls of serum sodium, education and behavioural therapy are needed.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/cen.13384

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