3 years ago

Mortality rates are lower in SIAD, than in hypervolaemic or hypovolaemic hyponatraemia: Results of a prospective observational study

Christopher J. Thompson, Mark Sherlock, David Slattery, William Tormey, Anne Marie Hannon, Karen McGurren, Martín Cuesta, Aoife Garrahy, Saket Gupta
Objective Hyponatraemia is associated with increased mortality, but the mortality associated specifically with SIAD is not known. We hypothesized that mortality in SIAD was elevated, but that it was less than in hypervolaemic (HEN) or hypovolaemic (HON) hyponatraemia. Design Mortality rates are presented as risk ratios (RR),with 95% confidence intervals (CI), and compared to normonatraemic controls (NN). Methods Prospective, single centre, noninterventional study of all patients with hyponatraemia (≤130 mmol/L) admitted to hospital. Results A total of 1323 admissions with hyponatraemia were prospectively evaluated and 1136 contemporaneous NN controls. 431(32.6%) hyponatraemic patients had HON, 573(43.3%) had SIAD and 275(20.8%) patients had HEN. In patient mortality was higher in hyponatraemia than NN (9.1% vs 3.3%, P<.0001). The RRs for in-hospital mortality compared to NN were: SIAD, 1.76 (95% CI 1.08-2.8, P=.02), HON 2.77 (95% CI 1.8-4.3, P<.0001) and HEN, 4.9 (95% CI 3.2-7.4, P<.0001). The mortality rate was higher in HEN (RR 2.85; 95% CI 1.86-4.37, P<.0001) and in HON, (RR 1.6; 95% CI 1.04-2.52; P=.03), when compared to SIAD. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was lower in SIAD than in eunatraemic patients (P<.0001). 9/121(7.4%) patients died with plasma sodium <125 mmol/L and 4(3.3%) with plasma sodium <120 mmol/L. However, 69/121(57%) patients died with a plasma sodium above 133 mmol/L. Conclusions We confirmed higher all-cause mortality in hyponatraemia than in NN. Mortality was higher in SIAD than in normonatraemia and was not explained on the basis of co-morbidities. Mortality was higher in HON and HEN than in SIAD. Mortality rates reported for all-cause hyponatraemia in the medical literature are not applicable to SIAD.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1111/cen.13388

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