The dynamic role of autophagy and MAPK signaling in determining cell fate under cisplatin stress in osteosarcoma cells
by Sudeshna Mukherjee, Subhra Dash, K. Lohitesh, Rajdeep ChowdhuryOsteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive bone malignancy commonly observed in children and adolescents. Sub-optimal therapy for years has irretrievably compromised the chances of OS patient survival; also, lack of extensive research on this rare disease has hindered therapeutic development. Cisplatin, a common anti-tumor drug, is currently an integral part of treatment regime for OS along with methotrexate and doxorubicin. However, toxicity issues associated with combination module impede OS therapy. Also, despite the proven benefits of cisplatin, acquisition of resistance remains a concern with cisplatin-based therapy. This prompted us to investigate the molecular effects of cisplatin exposure and changes associated with acquired resistance in OS cells. Cisplatin shock was found to activate MAPK signaling and autophagy in OS cells. An activation of JNK and autophagy acted as pro-survival strategy, while ERK1/2 triggered apoptotic signals upon cisplatin stress. A crosstalk between JNK and autophagy was observed. Maximal sensitivity to cisplatin was obtained with simultaneous inhibition of both autophagy and JNK pathway. Cisplatin resistant cells were further developed by repetitive drug exposure followed by clonal selection. The resistant cells showed an altered signaling circuitry upon cisplatin exposure. Our results provide valuable cues to possible molecular alterations that can be considered for development of improved therapeutic strategy against osteosarcoma.
Publisher URL: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article
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