4 years ago

Family-wide Analysis of the Inhibition of Arf Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors with Small Molecules: Evidence of Unique Inhibitory Profiles

Family-wide Analysis of the Inhibition of Arf Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factors with Small Molecules: Evidence of Unique Inhibitory Profiles
Sarah Benabdi, Raphaël Rodriguez, François Peurois, Shingo Dan, Isamu Shiina, Takao Yamori, Tatiana Cañeque, Agata Nawrotek, Jahnavi Chikireddy, Jacqueline Cherfils, Yoshimi Ohashi, Mahel Zeghouf
Arf GTPases and their guanine nucleotide exchange factors (ArfGEFs) are major regulators of membrane traffic and organelle structure in cells. They are associated with a variety of diseases and are thus attractive therapeutic targets for inhibition by small molecules. Several inhibitors of unrelated chemical structures have been discovered, which have shown their potential in dissecting molecular pathways and blocking disease-related functions. However, their specificity across the ArfGEF family has remained elusive. Importantly, inhibitory responses in the context of membranes, which are critical determinants of Arf and ArfGEF cellular functions, have not been investigated. Here, we compare the efficiency and specificity of four structurally distinct ArfGEF inhibitors, Brefeldin A, SecinH3, M-COPA, and NAV-2729, toward six ArfGEFs (human ARNO, EFA6, BIG1, and BRAG2 and Legionella and Rickettsia RalF). Inhibition was assessed by fluorescence kinetics using pure proteins, and its modulation by membranes was determined with lipidated GTPases in the presence of liposomes. Our analysis shows that despite the intra-ArfGEF family resemblance, each inhibitor has a specific inhibitory profile. Notably, M-COPA is a potent pan-ArfGEF inhibitor, and NAV-2729 inhibits all GEFs, the strongest effects being against BRAG2 and Arf1. Furthermore, the presence of the membrane-binding domain in Legionella RalF reveals a strong inhibitory effect of BFA that is not measured on its GEF domain alone. This study demonstrates the value of family-wide assays with incorporation of membranes, and it should enable accurate dissection of Arf pathways by these inhibitors to best guide their use and development as therapeutic agents.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00706

DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.7b00706

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