4 years ago

Strain-Modulated Bandgap and Piezo-Resistive Effect in Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors

Strain-Modulated Bandgap and Piezo-Resistive Effect in Black Phosphorus Field-Effect Transistors
Guorui Chen, Nai Zhou Wang, Likai Li, Fangyuan Yang, Takashi Taniguchi, Feng Wang, Xian Hui Chen, Kenji Watanabe, Yu Zhang, Jason Horng, Yuanbo Zhang, Yijun Yu, Zuocheng Zhang
Energy bandgap largely determines the optical and electronic properties of a semiconductor. Variable bandgap therefore makes versatile functionality possible in a single material. In layered material black phosphorus, the bandgap can be modulated by the number of layers; as a result, few-layer black phosphorus has discrete bandgap values that are relevant for optoelectronic applications in the spectral range from red, in monolayer, to mid-infrared in the bulk limit. Here, we further demonstrate continuous bandgap modulation by mechanical strain applied through flexible substrates. The strain-modulated bandgap significantly alters the density of thermally activated carriers; we for the first time observe a large piezo-resistive effect in black phosphorus field-effect transistors (FETs) at room temperature. The effect opens up opportunities for future development of electromechanical transducers based on black phosphorus, and we demonstrate an ultrasensitive strain gauge constructed from black phosphorus thin crystals.

Publisher URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02624

DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.7b02624

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