3 years ago

Adiponectin improves the osteointegration of titanium implant under diabetic conditions by reversing mitochondrial dysfunction via the AMPK pathway in vivo and in vitro

Adiponectin improves the osteointegration of titanium implant under diabetic conditions by reversing mitochondrial dysfunction via the AMPK pathway in vivo and in vitro
Diabetes-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction would result in compromised osteointegration of titanium implant (TI) and high rate of implant failure, yet the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Adiponectin (APN) is a fat-derived adipocytokine with strong antioxidant, mitochondrial-protective and anti-diabetic efficacies. We hypothesized that mitochondrial dysfunction under diabetes may account for the oxidative stress in osteoblasts and titanium-bone interface (TBI) instability, which could be ameliorated by APN. To test this hypothesis, we incubated primary rat osteoblasts on TI and tested the cellular behaviors when subjected to normal milieu (NM), diabetic milieu (DM), DM+APN, DM+AICAR (AMPK activator) and DM+APN+Compound C (AMPK inhibitor). In vivo, APN or APN+Compound C were administered to diabetic db/db mice with TI implanted in their femurs. Results showed that diabetes induced structural damage, dysfunction and content decrease of mitochondria in osteoblasts, which led to ROS overproduction, dysfunction and apoptosis of osteoblasts accompanied by the inhibition of AMPK signaling. APN alleviated the mitochondrial damage by activating AMPK, thus reversing osteoblast impairment and improving the osteointegration of TI evidenced by Micro-CT and histological analysis. Furthermore, AICAR showed beneficial effects similar to APN treatment, while the protective effects of APN were abolished when AMPK activation was blocked by Compound C. This study clarifies mitochondrial dysfunction as a crucial mechanism in the impaired bone healing and implant loosening in diabetes, and provides APN as a novel promising active component for biomaterial-engineering to improve clinical performance of TI in diabetic patients. Statement of Significance The loosening rate of titanium implants in diabetic patients is high. The underlying mechanisms remain elusive and, with the rapid increase of diabetic morbility, efficacious strategies to mitigate this problem have become increasingly important. Our study showed that the mitochondrial impairment and the consequent oxidative stress in osteoblasts at the titanium-bone interface (TBI) play a critical role in the diabetes-induced poor bone repair and implant destabilization, which could become therapeutic targets. Furthermore, adiponectin, a cytokine, promotes the bio-functional recovery of osteoblasts and bone regeneration at the TBI in diabetes. This provides APN as a novel bioactive component used in material-engineering to promote the osteointegration of implants, which could reduce implant failure, especially for diabetic patients.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S1742706117303835

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