3 years ago

Recognition of viral and self-antigens by TH1 and TH1/TH17 central memory cells in patients with multiple sclerosis reveals distinct roles in immune surveillance and relapses

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that is caused by autoreactive T cells and associated with viral infections. However, the phenotype of pathogenic T cells in peripheral blood remains to be defined, and how viruses promote MS is debated. Objective We aimed to identify and characterize potentially pathogenic autoreactive T cells, as well as protective antiviral T cells, in patients with MS. Methods We analyzed CD4+ helper T-cell subsets from peripheral blood or cerebrospinal fluid for cytokine production, gene expression, plasticity, homing potentials, and their reactivity to self-antigens and viral antigens in healthy subjects and patients with MS. Moreover, we monitored their frequencies in untreated and fingolimod- or natalizumab-treated patients with MS. Results TH1/TH17 central memory (TH1/TH17CM) cells were selectively increased in peripheral blood of patients with relapsing-remitting MS with a high disease score. TH1/TH17CM cells were closely related to conventional TH17 cells but had more pathogenic features. In particular, they could shuttle between lymph nodes and the CNS and produced encephalitogenic cytokines. The cerebrospinal fluid of patients with active MS was enriched for CXCL10 and contained mainly CXCR3-expressing TH1 and TH1/TH17 subsets. However, while TH1 cells responded consistently to viruses, TH1/TH17CM cells reacted strongly with John Cunningham virus in healthy subjects but responded instead to myelin-derived self-antigens in patients with MS. Fingolimod and natalizumab therapies efficiently targeted autoreactive TH1/TH17CM cells but also blocked virus-specific TH1 cells. Conclusions We propose that autoreactive TH1/TH17CM cells expand in patients with MS and promote relapses after bystander recruitment to the CNS, whereas TH1 cells perform immune surveillance. Thus the selective targeting of TH1/TH17 cells could inhibit relapses without causing John Cunningham virus–dependent progressive multifocal encephalomyelitis.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S009167491730043X

You might also like
Never Miss Important Research

Researcher is an app designed by academics, for academics. Create a personalised feed in two minutes.
Choose from over 15,000 academics journals covering ten research areas then let Researcher deliver you papers tailored to your interests each day.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.