3 years ago

Cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: A comprehensive update

Heightened rates of both cardiovascular (CV) events and subclinical atherosclerosis, documented by imaging and vascular function techniques are well established in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). While traditional CV factors such as smoking, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, central obesity and hyperhomocysteinemia have been reported to be prevalent in lupus patients, they do not fully explain the high rates of ischemic events so far reported, implying that other factors inherent to disease itself could account for the enhanced risk, including disease duration, activity and chronicity, psychosocial factors, medications, genetic variants and altered immunological mechanisms. Though the exact pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in the setting of lupus remains ill defined, an imbalance between endothelial damage and atheroprotection seems to be a central event. Insults leading to endothelial damage in the setting of lupus include oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), autoantibodies against endothelial cells and phospholipids, type I interferons (IFN) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) directly or through activation of type I IFN pathway. Increased oxidative stress, reduced levels of the normally antioxidant high density lipoprotein (HDL), increased levels of proinflammatory HDL (piHDL) and reduced paraoxonase activity have been related to increased oxLDL levels. On the other hand, impaired atheroprotective mechanisms in lupus include decreased capacity of endothelial repair-partly mediated by type I IFN- and dampened production of atheroprotective autoantibodies. In the present review, traditional and disease related risk factors for CV disease (CVD) in the setting of chronic autoimmune disorders with special focus on SLE will be discussed.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0896841117303797

You might also like
Never Miss Important Research

Researcher is an app designed by academics, for academics. Create a personalised feed in two minutes.
Choose from over 15,000 academics journals covering ten research areas then let Researcher deliver you papers tailored to your interests each day.

  • Download from Google Play
  • Download from App Store
  • Download from AppInChina

Researcher displays publicly available abstracts and doesn’t host any full article content. If the content is open access, we will direct clicks from the abstracts to the publisher website and display the PDF copy on our platform. Clicks to view the full text will be directed to the publisher website, where only users with subscriptions or access through their institution are able to view the full article.