4 years ago

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (Nod2) modulates T1DM susceptibility by gut microbiota

Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (Nod2) is an innate immune receptor. To investigate the role of Nod2 in susceptibility to the autoimmune disease, type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), we generated Nod2 −/− non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. The Nod2 −/−NOD mice had different composition of the gut microbiota compared to Nod2 +/+NOD mice and were significantly protected from diabetes, but only when housed separately from Nod2 +/+NOD mice. This suggested that T1DM susceptibility in Nod2 −/−NOD mice is dependent on the alteration of gut microbiota, which modulated the frequency and function of IgA-secreting B-cells and IL-10 promoting T-regulatory cells. Finally, colonizing germ-free NOD mice with Nod2 −/−NOD gut microbiota significantly reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine-secreting immune cells but increased T-regulatory cells. Thus, gut microbiota modulate the immune system and T1D susceptibility. Importantly, our study raises a critical question about the housing mode in the interpretation of the disease phenotype of genetically-modified mouse strains in T1DM studies.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0896841117301063

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