4 years ago

Carboranes as Aryl Mimetics in Catalysis: A Highly Active Zwitterionic NHC-Precatalyst

Carboranes as Aryl Mimetics in Catalysis: A Highly Active Zwitterionic NHC-Precatalyst
Evamarie Hey-Hawkins, Kirsten Zeitler, Wilma Neumann, Peter Lönnecke, Christoph Selg
Modern catalysis takes advantage of aryl-based interactions to tune and control reactions. In the design of N-heterocyclic-carbene catalysts, both the electronic and steric nature of the nitrogen substituents play a crucial role. Although hydrocarbon-based systems and especially aryl residues have contributed considerably to overcome multifaceted catalytic challenges, the unique properties of carborane moieties, including delocalized charge, potential planar chirality, and well-known thermodynamic stability, offer unprecedented opportunities to develop new catalysts while being employed as aryl mimetics. We report a straightforward synthetic route to a novel zwitterionic triazolium-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precatalyst bearing a 7,8-dicarba-nido-undecaboranyl substituent. The catalyst's excellent activity and its broad applicability are demonstrated in a wide range of organocatalytic transformations. Comparison of the performance with known N-aryl NHC catalysts offers preliminary insights into the stereoelectronic nature of this nido-carboranyl substituent. Catalyst's first steps: The first N-carboranyl-substituted zwitterionic triazolium NHC-precatalyst for covalent organocatalysis is presented. Its broad applicability and reactivity profile are examined in a wide range of test reactions. Presentation and discussion of the unique spectroscopic and crystallographic properties pave the way for versatile applications of this novel class of catalysts, which are bench-stable and easily accessible.

Publisher URL: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/doi

DOI: 10.1002/chem.201700209

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