5 years ago

The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of lycopene in mice lungs exposed to cigarette smoke

Lycopene is a carotenoid with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo effects of lycopene on reducing the redox imbalance and inflammation induced by cigarette smoke (CS). For the in vitro study, J774A.1 (macrophages) cells were incubated in the presence of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 10.0 and 25 μM of lycopene for 3, 6 and 24 h or in the presence of 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.25%, 5% and 10% cigarette smoke extract (CSE) for 3, 6 and 24 h to assess cell viability and measurement of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). For the in vivo study, 40 mice were divided into 5 groups: a control exposed to ambient air (CG), a vehicle-control group that received 200 μl of sunflower oil by orogastric gavage, a group exposed to CS and two groups administered lycopene (diluted in sunflower oil) at doses of either 25 or 50 mg/kg/day prior to exposure to CS (LY25+CS and LY50+CS). The total treatment time lasted 5 days. A cell viability decrease was observed at 10- and 25-μM concentrations of lycopene in 3, 6 and 24 h compared with CG. There was an increase of ROS production in 24 h in CS compared with CG. Lycopene concentrations of 1 μM and 2 μM were able to reduce the production of ROS in 24 h compared with CS. In the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the total number of leukocytes increased in the CS group compared with the control groups (CG). Administration with lycopene at the highest dose suppressed this CS-induced increase in leukocytes. Lipid peroxidation and DNA damage increased in the CS group compared with that in the controls, and this increase was suppressed by lycopene at the highest dose. In contrast, superoxide dismutase activity decreased in the CS group compared with that in the controls. Catalase activity also increased in the CS group compared with that in both control groups, and this increase was suppressed in LY25+CS and LY50+CS. There was an increase in the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ and interleukin-10 after exposure to CS, and these effects were suppressed by both doses of lycopene. These data elucidate the role of lycopene as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in these two models of short-term exposure to CS.

Publisher URL: www.sciencedirect.com/science

DOI: S0955286316306854

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